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Powder Coating Glossary of Terms & Definitions
Coarse material used in abrasive blast cleaning, such as sand, grit, steel shot, or glass or plastic beads.
A powder coating with a significant content of a polymer containing short chain esters of various acrylic monomers.
Acrylic Resin
A clear resin derived from polymerized esters of various acrylic monomers. Acrylics are widely used as automotive and appliance topcoats and in other applications where resistance to chalking with exposure to sunlight is important. Physical properties can be controlled in part by choice of alcohol to make the ester.
Chemicals added to a powder coating to improve some property of a resin system such as flow control, gloss control, and texturing additives.
Bonding strength. Molecular attraction to the surface to which a substance is applied. A condition where one material is attached to another by means of surface attraction. Adhesion is affected by the condition of the surface to be coated, by closeness of contact, and molecular forces. The surface being coated should allow a certain amount of penetration, be chemically clean, be hard, not too smooth, and non-porous, to achieve good adhesion.
A clump of powder particles bound loosely together into clusters containing entrapped air.
Air Cap/Nozzle
Perforated housing (at the head of a spray gun or nozzle) which directs compressed air against a coating material to form and shape it into an atomized cloud.
Air Velocity
Measurement of air speed, typically in feet per minute.
Air Volume
Measurement of air volume in cubic feet per minute.
Caustic. Inorganic substances that share the characteristic of being strongly basic (high pH). (Example: Sodium hydroxide or caustic soda, lye, etc.)
Usual or surrounding environmental conditions.
Anchor Pattern
Profile of a surface. Usually refers to surface profile after blasting.
Process of applying a coating to a substrate.
A water-based material.
A discharge of built-up electrical charge, often in the form of a spark, to a point of lower charge, usually ground.
The American Society for Testing Materials, the source for voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services.
A process describing a powder coating material that has partially reacted or cured during manufacturing or storage.
Back Ionization
A condition which may occur during electrostatic application of powder where an excessive build-up of charged powder particles limits further powder to be deposited on the substrate and can reverse the electrical charge of the surface layer of powder particles. May also be referred to as Electrostatic Rejection and/or Repelling
Blast Cleaning
Removal of surface contaminate from a part by use of an air- or mechanically-propelled abrasive.
Bubbles formed under a cured powder film, usually caused by the expansion of trapped air, moisture, or corrosion, either in a coating or in the substrate.
Blacked Isocyanate
A curing agent for hydroxyl-containing resins. Releases the blocked agent upon reaching an elevated temperature.
Adhesion or secure joining of coating-to-coating or coating-to-substrate.
British Thermal Unit, the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water, 1 degree F, at a surrounding temperature of 39.2 degrees F.
BTU's times hours.
Cartridge Booth
A type of powder booth that incorporates a cartridge filter system for powder overspray recovery.
Cartridge Collector
A self-contained unit with a cartridge filter housing or box for recovery of oversprayed powder that is used with a powder booth.
A special chemical that promotes the curing reaction.
Detergent, alkali, acid, solvent, or other cleaning material, often water- or steam-borne, used to clean and degrease parts prior to application of powder.
Clear Coat
An unpigmented powder coating applied over a color or base metal such as brass.
Coalescent Filter
A filter used in the compressed air line to fuse and trap liquid particles in the air stream.
Color Chip
Small piece of paper, celluloid, or other material, coated with finishing material and used as a color finish sample.
Compliance Coating
Coating which meets EPA defined standards for air, water, and waste disposal regulations.
Conversion Coating
Inorganic (zinc/iron phosphate) pretreatment for metal substrates that prepares the surface for powder coating.
A glowing, bluish or reddish area created by a discharge of electricity.
Corona Charging
The process of inducing a static electric charge on powder particles by passing the powder through an electrostatic field generated by a high voltage device.
Decomposition or reaction of metal with oxygen, water, or other chemicals, when exposed to a particular environment.
Transporting overflowed solution from one washer stage to another for reuse.
Small round depressions on a paint film.
Corrosion under a scribe line or edge after salt spray or other testing.
Cross Contamination
A condition when two or more powders are mixed by accident, usually resulting in a reduction in quality.
Cubic Feet Per Minute
Volume movement of a fluid. A measure used to size powder systems based on captive air. If not otherwise defined, the conditions are presumed to be air at a temperature of 68 degrees F, a pressure of 14.70 pounds per cubic foot. In gas industries, the temperature of standard air is usually given at 60 degrees F.
For thermoset powders, the polymerization of the resins and crosslinkers in the binder system to the desired molecular weight and physical properties of the coating, converting from a dry state to a solid continuous film.
A cylindrical device that separates powder particles from the air stream by centrifugally spinning the particles around its perimeter to the bottom for recovery. Some of the finer particles pass through the cyclone to a collector.
Decorative Coating
A coating designed primarily for cosmetic appearance and secondarily for protection. Decorative coatings are usually thin films (>5 mils).
Conical shaped disc attached to the end of a powder gun to evenly distribute powder in a 360 degree pattern. Used to shape or direct the powder pattern.
Deionized Water
Water containing no ions other than hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. Usually produced through the use of ion exchange resins and used for rinsing parts after a seal rinse in a spray washer.
Separation between two layers of coating or the coating and the substrate.
The process of moving the coating powder through the application equipment to the end product. 
Color change.
Distinctness of Image. A test used to describe the surface reflectance of a paint film. A mirror would have very high DOI, but a low gloss texture would have no DOI.
Down-draft Booth
A powder booth in which the extraction opening is at the bottom of the booth.
Process of solution entrapment being pulled with the product typically out of a washer zone or coating enclosure.
Dry Film Thickness
Depth of applied coating powder before curing.
Edge Coverage
A coating powder's ability to flow over, build, and adhere to sharp corners, angles and edges.
A metal filament within or at the end of a powder gun, used to create air ions as high voltage is applied. Powder is charged by the attachment of air ions.
Electrostatic Spray Technique
A deposition method of spraying and charging powder so that it is deposited on a grounded substrate.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Agency of the U.S. Government whose purpose is to regulate and control those agents affecting the environment.
A type of coating powder manufactured with epoxy resin, and generally having high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance but limited gloss and color retention when exposed to sunlight.
Surface preparation of metal by chemical process. Removal of a layer of the base metal.
Device used to melt-mix plastics and/or coating powders. An extruder utilizes heat and mechanical kneading to achieve a homogeneous mixture.
Gradual loss of color of a paint film due to a chemical or physical change, usually caused by ultraviolet light.
Fan Pattern
Geometry or shape of spray pattern.
Fan Spray Nozzle
A powder gun tip that provides a fan-shaped spray pattern.
Faraday Cage Effect
A condition that may exist on a substrate due to its geometric configuration that may inhibit the electrostatic application of powder particles at that specific localized area, such as cavities or recesses.
Fatty Edge
Thick film sometimes found on heavily coated work, resulting in a rounded, thicker film along the edges.
Feed Hopper
A container that holds powder for supply to the guns. Most feed hopper designs employ fluidization of the powder for uniform feed to the guns. See Fluidized Bed.
Containing iron.
Extender, bulking agent or inert pigment.
Film Build
Cured thickness characteristics of the coatings.
Film Thickness
Depth of cured coating, usually expressed in mils, 1/1,000 of an inch.
Small powder particles, usually under 10 microns.
A large surface depression in a coating film often caused by a contaminant such as oil or silicone.
Flash Rusting
Very thin film of rust occurring within minutes after applying a pretreatment solution.
Measure of self-leveling. Characteristics of a coating allowing it to level or spread into a smooth film of uniform thickness before hardening. 
A term that describes powder that is in a state of suspension using compressed air, creating a fluid mixture of air and powder.
Fluidized Bed
A fixed container in which powder is suspended in a continuous stream of air. Preheated objects may be coated by dipping directly into a fluidized bed. The fluidized bed may also be used to facilitate transfer of powder materials to an alternate application site.
Feet Per Minute, a measure of air flow speed.
Galvanized Steel
Steel coated with a layer of metallic zinc.
Air or gas that escapes from a sub-surface beneath a coating and causes blisters, bubbles or small holes in the coating. Gassing frequently occurs with zinc or aluminum castings or galvanized steel and is commonly referred to as out-gassing.
Instrument or device for measuring, indicating or comparing a physical characteristic.
Gel Time
Interval required at a given temperature for a powder to be transformed from a dry solid to a gel-like state. Gel time is measured in seconds at a given temperature.
Spouts of air and powder found in a fluid hopper when uneven air dispersion is applied.
The degree to which a surface reflects light. Light striking a surface causes a portion of the light to bounce off the surface which is gloss, and the other portion of the light penetrates into the surface, where part of it is absorbed and then refracted and reflected. High gloss surfaces are typically very shiny.
Gloss Retention
Ability to retain the original gloss.
Gallons Per Minute.
A method of removing or adding electrical charge.
Gun Extension
Extension adapter to a spray gun. Allows for better penetration for manual reinforcement.
Curing agent for thermoset powder formulations.
The ability of a cured coating to withstand indentation.
HEPA Filter
High efficiency particulate air-purifying filter. Separates particles down to sub-micron sizes from air.
Hexavalent Chrome
Chromium most often used as a seal rinse in a five- or more stage pretreatment system. Has a +6 valence Hex and is considered a reactive seal rinse.
Hiding Power
The extent to which a powder coating masks the color and pattern of the surface it is applied to at a given film thickness.
Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning air supply system.
An epoxy-modified polyester or an epoxy-modified acrylic thermoset coating powder. Hybrids usually have good overbake and good application properties.
The tendency of a substance to attract or absorb moisture from the air.
Impact Fusion
The tendency of finely divided powders to combine with other particles in the application equipment during the application process.
Infrared Radiation
Electromagnetic energy in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Integral Charging
A powder gun that has a low voltage signal supplied to it and steps up the current to high voltage via a cascade multiplier located in the gun barrel.
Intercoat Adhesion
A coating powder's ability to adhere to previously applied films.
Iron Phosphate
Conversion coating. Chemical deposition on steel and aluminum for corrosion protection.
Isocyanate Resins
Urethane resins. Isocyanate curing agent which when heated or reacted with hydroxyl functional polymers, give urethane coatings.
Lance Extension
Variable extensions for powder guns.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
The lower point for a range of concentrations or organic particles suspended in air which can be ignited by a sufficient energy source. Also referred to MEC or Minimum Explosive Concentration.
Magnehelic Gauge
Trade name of Dwyer Instruments' gauge for measuring air pressure in inches or water column.
Mandrel Bend Test
Physical bending test for testing flexibility. (ASTM Test D522)
Covering areas of a part to prevent coverage by powder during application.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Information supplied by coating manufacturers listing all known hazardous ingredients, physical and health hazards, first-aid procedures and protective equipment.
Material Utilization
The percentage of a volume of powder that actually is deposited on the parts, not lost through handling, transfer onto the racks, contamination or as non-reclaimed powder.
A surface with minimal reflection of light, the opposite of high gloss.
Melt Mixing
A predominant process for the manufacture of coating powders involving the continuous compounding of the pigments, fillers, catalysts and resins at elevated temperatures.
A measurement of film thickness, 1 mil = .001'.
Mild Steel
Structural steel or plate, malleable iron based alloy. SAE 1020, with a carbon content of up to 2.5%.
Term used to describe the amount of area that can be covered with a given amount of coating material. Measured in ft2/lb.
Mill Scale
Oxide layer formed on steel by hot rolling process.
Molten Salt
Inorganic chemical or chemicals that are used at temperatures above their melting point as heat transfer, heat treating or metal cleaning purposes.
Molten Salt Bath
A specially designed vessel used to contain and heat molten salt processes.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
An organization that has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and re-activity hazards of chemicals.
A material containing no iron.
A thermoplastic powder coating which contains long-chain polymers consisting of recurring amide groups (CONH). These coatings are tough, abrasion-resistant and exhibit good chemical resistance.
Original Equipment Manufacturer.
Not matching the color standard to which the coating is being compared.
A unit of electrical resistance.
Ability to hide the substrate of a given film thickness.
Orange Peel
A wavy irregularity in the surface of a paint film coated by the flow characteristics of the coating. Orange peel appears as a characteristically uneven or rough surface to the eye, but usually feels smooth to the touch.
Substance containing carbon compounds.
Organic Powder
That which was derived from carbon atoms containing compounds such as epoxies, polyesters, hybrids, vinyls, nylon, phenolics, etc.
Device used to move automatic guns in a vertical plane to provide uniform and increased powder coverage. Motion is provided by a wheel and arm mechanical device within the unit. Radial oscillators, or wagglers, move the guns in an arc motion.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; government enforcement agency for safety issues in U.S. industry.
Overall Efficiency
The product of the compression efficiency and the mechanical efficiency.
Powder that has been dispersed too finely but by use of excessive atomizing air pressure.
Applying more heat in time and/or temperature than is required for cure. Overbake is the result of curing paint film at too high of a combination of time and temperature. The film often becomes too hard and may embrittle and/or color and gloss may be adversely affected.
Material that does not deposit on the part of rack and goes to the recovery system.
Part Bring-up Time
Amount of time required to heat a part to a desired metal temperature.
Part Opening
The opening in the powder booth, ovens, washers and other equipment where parts enter and exit.
Particle Size
The average diameter of an object having irregular boundaries that can be determined to have diameter through various test methods.
Conversion of a metal surface to a less reactive state. A process used to reduce the corrosion rate of metal surfaces.
pH Value
Measure of acidity or alkalinity. pH7 is neutral. The pH values of acids are less than 7. The pH values of alkali bases are greater than 7.
Chemical radical (PO4)-3. In coating operations, zinc, iron or manganese phosphate is used as a conversion coating to prepare the part for coating application.
Particles in a powder formula that provide color, corrosion resistance and other properties.
Formation of small holes through the entire thickness of a coating. The appearance of fine, pimply defects in a cured film, due to air trapped under the surface of the film or other causes, resulting in small holes in the film.
Air chamber used to transition or distribute airflow within a powder spray booth.
A resin or powder containing the chemical group R-COOC-R.
A thermoplastic resin with the formula (CH2CH2)x.
Poly means many and mer means units. Polymers are very large molecules built up by the combination of many small molecules, often having many thousands of atoms.
Chemical reaction in which small molecules combine to form very high molecular weight molecules.
One of the more common polyolefin thermoplastics. An addition polymer from propylene monomers with a crystalline structure (CH2CHCH2)x.
Polyvinyl Chloride
Synthetic resin used in solvent-type coatings; produced by polymerization of vinyl chloride. Also used in vinyl powders.
Degree of integrity or continuity.
Heating of a part after powder coating to complete the cure cycle, which completes the cross linking of the components.
Power & Free Conveyor
Two-track chain conveyor system that allows product to be transported at different speeds and through different routes throughout the finishing system.
A coating blend made of non-volatile ingredients, applied dry and melted into a continuous film.
Powder Booth
An enclosure used for containment of powder during the spray operation.
Powder Coating
Coatings that are protective, decorative, or both, formed by the application of a coating powder to a substrate and fused into continuous films by the application of heat or radiant energy. Coating powders are finely divided particles or organic polymer which generally contain pigments, fillers and additives; and which remain finely divided during storage under suitable conditions.
Powder Room
A room that isolates the powder application process from the general plant environment. Sometimes referred to as Environmental Room.
Force per unit area relative to atmospheric pressure. Usually expressed in pounds per square inch.
The preparation of a part prior to the application of powder coating in order to improve adhesion and corrosion resistance.
A type of coating, usually paint, applied to a surface to improve adhesion of a top coat and/or improve corrosion resistance.
Primer Surfacer
Coating used to prime a surface as well as fill irregularities in the substrate. Primer surfacers are usually applied over a primer.
Production Rate
Measurement of square foot per day of the surface area cleaned or coated in one working day by one person.
Surface contour of a blast-cleaned surface as viewed from the edge cross-section of surface.
Profile Depth
Average distance between top of peaks and bottom of valleys on a surface.
Pounds per square inch, a measure of force above a vacuum.
Device which converts mechanical force and motion into hydraulic fluid powder.
Pump Screen
A screen that catches large contaminants in a process solution as the solution flows through it to the pump.
Cleaning one color or powder formulation from all areas that come in contact with the powder before introducing another color or powder.
Radiation Cure
Curing a coating by means of exposure to electromagnetic waves or particles such as infrared, ultraviolet or electron beam.
Device used to move automatic guns in a vertical plane. Motion is provided by a reversing or reciprocating drive system.
The process used to recycle nondeposited powder through the delivery system for reuse.
Reclaimed Powder
Powder which has been oversprayed and captured for reuse.
Process of refinishing parts that have a surface defect from the first coating application by repairing the defect and respraying.
The process of removing nondeposited powder from the air prior to recirculating the powder through the delivery system.
Recovery System
A filtration system that separates powder from the airstrip with a fan that captures oversprayed powder and maintains negative air pressure inside a powder booth. Most common type of recovery systems are the cyclone system and the cartridge module system.
Any class of solid or semi-solid organic material of natural or synthetic origin, generally of high molecular weight with no definite melting point. Most resins are polymers.
The resistance to the flow of electrical current afforded by a substance.
Reverse Osmosis
Method of removing metal ions from an aqueous solution via semi-permeable membranes.
Procedures to correct powder coating imperfections or defects.
Sags in the coating.
Corroded iron. Red iron oxide deposited on metal. Also other metal oxides formed by corrosion.
Salt Spray Test
Corrosion test using salt (NaCl) solution sprayed as a mist in a heated humidity chamber to simulate seashore conditions, or to accelerate corrosion at a controlled rate. (ASTM Test B117)
Sand Blast
Blast cleaning using sand as an abrasive.
Sanitary Pan
A trough that is mounted under a conveyor chain to catch debris and keep it from falling on work in progress.
Rust occurring in layers, commonly found on hot-rolled steel.
Screen Mesh Size
The mesh number of a screen designates the openings per square inch using standard wire. Screens are used to classify the size of the coating powders.
Seal Rinse
A final rinse in a spray washer that passivates the pretreated surface to prevent oxidation and provide corrosion resistance in the field.
Formation of small agglomerates or gel particles. Seeds in coating powders can form when the material is overheated during the extrusion process.
Shelf Life
Maximum amount of time a material may be stored and still be in usable condition.
Shot Blasting
Blast cleaning using steel shot as the abrasive.
Side-draft Booth
A powder booth where the air extraction opening is on the side of the booth.
Powder particle classifier which utilizes wire mesh of various sizes to screen out oversized powder particulate and foreign material or dirt.
Rotary Sieve
Cylindrical screen equipped with an electrically driven paddle used to classify powders, or remove undesirable particulate from powder materials. 
Vibratory Sieve
Electrically or pneumatically driven screen utilizing vibration to classify powders, or remove undesirable particulate from the powder materials.
One of a family of polymeric materials in which the recurring chemical group contains silicone and oxygen atoms as links in the main chain. These compounds are derived from silica, i.e., sand, and methyl chloride. The various forms obtainable are characterized by their resistance to heat. Uses for silicone include: greases for lubrication; rubber-like sheeting for gaskets; heat-stable fluids; compounds for waterproofing and insulation; thermosetting insulation varnishes; and resins for both coating and lamination. [Silicone lubricants should not be used around a finishing system because it will cause defects in the finished surface.]
The tendency of some powders and powder coating materials to agglomerate during storage.
Foreign matter on a part's substrate prior to being cleaned in a pretreatment system. Can be organic or inorganic.
Liquid or blend of liquids used to dissolve or disperse a paint. A true solvent is a single liquid which can dissolve a paint.
Solvent-borne Coating
Coating containing only organic solvents. (Non-water-borne)
Specific Gravity
An expression of density of a material relative to water. Examples: water - 1.000; ammonia - .587; propane - 1.550; natural gas - .665. Ration of the weight of a given volume of liquid or solid to the wight of an equal volume of water. (ASTM Test D3451)
Specular Gloss
Mirror-like reflectance. Gloss measured at a specific specular angle. (ASTM Test D523)
Spray Pattern
Configuration of spray with a powder gun. See Diffuser and Fan Spray Nozzle.
Spray-to-waste Operation
Utilizing virgin powder only. All overspray powder is discarded and not recycled. 
Storage Life
Period of time that a powder material will remain usable in storage.
Storage Stability
The ability of coating powders to maintain uniform physical and chemical properties after being subjected to the manufacturer's specified storage conditions.
The part to be powder coated.
Surface Defects
Flaws in the surface of a coated part.
Surface Preparation
Operations necessary to prepare the surface of a part prior to the application of a coating.
Chemical used to adjust surface tension of a material.
(1) A rise of pressure in an electrical circuit. (2) A sudden burst of powder from the spray gun.
Take up
A device that maintains tension on a conveyor chain during operation.
Tape Adhesion
Test used to check for adhesion of a coating to a surface.  (ASTM Test D3359)
Total desolved solids, a measurement of the solids content of water in parts per million (ppm).
Technical  Data  Sheet (TDS)
A  document provided by a supplier that details the properties and  expected  performance  of  a  material.  Also known as Product Data Sheet.
Phenomenon that occurs when a surface defect on an uncoated part is visible in the cured powder after the coating is applied.
Triglycidyl  Isocyanurate,  a  common crosslinker for carboxyl polyester resins.
Theoretical Coverage
The capacity of a given mass  of  a  specific  powder  to  coat,  in  a  cured state, an area of substrate at a determined film thickness.
A  pair  of  dissimilar  metal wires that generate an electric force at the point of  connection  which  varies  in  proportion  to temperature.
A powder coating which will repeatedly  melt  when  subjected  to  heat  and solidify  when  cooled.  Typical  examples  are vinyls (PVC), nylons, and polyolefins.
Powder  coating  chemistry that undergoes an irreversible chemical change during  thermal  cure.  Examples  are:  epoxy, polyurethane, acrylic.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
The concentration of a compound that a worker can be exposed to day-to-day  without  experiencing  any  adverse effects. TLV’s are established by the ACGIH.
The production output of a system at a given line speed using a predetermined part density or hang pattern.
Time Weighted Average (TWA)
The legal limit of exposure of a chemical measured as average exposure  over  an  eight  hour  period  of  time. TWA’s are established by OSHA and are used to define Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL).
See Threshold Limit Value.
Profile. Mechanical anchorage. Surface roughness.
Large  containers  for  shipping  bulk powder coatings.
Degree  of  poisonousness  or harmfulness.
Transfer Efficiency
The ratio of the powder deposited compared to the amount directed at the part to be coated.
Transformer,  Pneumatic
Device  used  for regu lation  of  pressure  in,  and  removal  of moisture from, an air supply line.
A  method  to  impart electrostatic charge on a powder coating by the friction or contact of the powder with a material of dissimilar dielectric constant.
Triglycidyl  Isocyanurate  (TGIC)
A  tri- functional epoxide compound that is commonly used  as  a  crosslinker  for  carboxyl  polyester resins.
Intermittent  squeezing  and releasing of a spray gun trigger, or turning them on and off intermittently for some systems.
Turbulent Flow
Air currents within a spray booth that may be strong enough to negatively affect the application of powder. Good transfer efficiency is dependent on laminar air flow.
See Time Weighted Average.
Two–stage  Compressors
Compressors  in which compression from initial to final pressure is completed in two distinct steps or stages.
Ultraviolet Absorber (UVA)
A chemical that absorbs  harmful  UV  energy  and  dissipates it  into  heat  energy.  UVA’s  are  used  to  reduce coating  degradation  due  to  exposure  to  solar energy.
Ultraviolet  Radiation
Light  energy  having a  wave length  of  about  0.4  to  80  milimicrons. Such energy can break certain chemical bonds and contribute to the fading and wearing away of coatings.
Not enough atomizing air in ratio to supply air, resulting in a spray pattern that  surges  and  is  not  fine  enough  for  good charging efficiency.
A  coating  that  has  not  had enough  exposure  to  the  combination  of  heat and time to completely cure.
Upper  Explosive  Limit
Concentration  of solvent  vapor  or  coating  powder  particles  in air above which the mixture will not explode if ignited.
The product of the reaction between a  hydroxyl  functional  compound  and  an isocyanate. Hydroxyl polyester resins cured with blocked isocyanate curing agents are commonly referred to as urethane or polyurethane powder coatings.
UV  Flame  Detection  System
A  device  that senses  the  UV  light  emission  cause  by  an ignition source. In powder coating application systems  these  devices  are  used  to  shut  down the spray process when a spark is detected.
UV  Flame  Detection  System
A  device  that senses UV light in a powder booth and shut the equipment off when it detects a spark.
Vacuum Wand
Vacuum cleaner or wand for twin air belt booth or a tool used with a vacuum system for cleaning up powder.
Valve,  Check
Direction  control  valve  that allows air to pass in only one direction.
Valve,  Flow  Control
Valve  whose  primary func tion is to control flow rate.
Valve, Shut–off
Valve that operates fully open or fully closed.
Valve, Throttling
Valve used to regulate the pressure/flow of solutions in the washer.
Device to measure the speed of air in feet per minute.
A constricted throat in a powder pump that uses compressed air to lift and transport powder from the feed hopper to the application equipment device, from the bulk feeder to the feed hopper, from the cartridge module to the feed hopper, etc.
Vertical  Zoning
Triggering  only  the  guns needed  to  coat  a  given  part  length  to  reduce overspray when a conveyor is loaded with parts of  various  lengths.  Multiple  photo–eye  inputs can be used to control which guns are used on any given part.
Small entrance hall to pretreatment washer, powder booth, or oven.
Vibratory Box Feeder
A device allowing the powder  to  be  pumped  directly  from  the  box container  utilizing  vibration  to  keep  powder moving.
Vibratory Sieve
See Sieve, Vibratory.
A  popular  name  for  thermoplastic polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials.
Vinyl Coating
A coating in which the major portion of the binder is a vinyl resin.
Vinyl Copolymer
Resins produced by copoly– merizing vinyl monomers such as vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride.
Vinyl Resin
Synthetic resins made from vinyl compounds.
Virgin Powder
Unsprayed powder as opposed to sprayed or reclaimed powder.
See Volatile Organic Compound.
Volatile Content
The quantity, expressed as a  weight  percent  of  the  powder,  which  is  lost under specified conditions of temperature and time.
Volatile  Organic Compound (VOC)
Hydrocarbon chemicals that can evaporate into the atmosphere and are recognized by the US EPA  as  contributors  to  photochemical  smog. VOC’s are commonly emitted from solventborne paints.
Voltage Tester
Instrument used to measure voltage  output  at  the  corona  tip  of  an electrostatic powder spray gun.
Instrument used to measure poten- tial differences in volts.
Volume  Resistivity
Resistance  in  ohms per unit of volume. The property of a material that deter mines its resistance to the flow of an electrical current.
Volumetric Efficiency
The ratio of the actual capacity  of  the  compressor  to  displacement, expressed in percent.
W Pattern  Calculation
Calculation  of  the coverage  for  combined  motions  of  part  travel and gun oscillation.
See Oscillator.
Washer Drain Zone
The  space  in  between spray zones within the washer tunnel.
Washer  Process  Zone
The  spray  treatment zone within the washer tunnel.
Washer Vestibule
The portion of the washer tunnel at the entrance and exit.
Water  Spotting
Whitish  blemishes  on  a pretreated  part  where  minerals  in  the  water have left a deposit on the surface.
Weathering Resistance
Also Weatherability. The ability of a surface to withstand the outdoor elements without degradation.
Weld  Splatter
Beads  of  metal  left  adjoining a weld.
A  measurement  of  pressure  in  inches of water column. The pressure to be measured is introduced into one end of a u–shaped tube filled with colored water and the measurement is deter mined by how far up a tube the water is pushed.
White  Blast
Blast  cleaning  to  white  metal surface.
A characteristic of powder coatings in electrostatic application to seek out and adhere to  areas  of  the  substrate  not  in  direct  line  of sight of the delivery system end point.
Development of yellow color or cast in  a  light–colored  powder  formulation  due  to aging or improper cure cycle.
Zinc Phosphate Coating
Conversion coating used  on  steel  and  galvanized  steel  parts  to improve coating adhesion and corrosion resistance.